Association Norms

Associations are commonly collected by presenting target stimuli to participants in an experiment, who then provide associate responses, i.e., words that are called to mind by the stimulus words. The quantification of the resulting target-association pairs is called association norms.

Example: associations to the German verb klagen

We have performed several web experiments to collect associations. See here on how to obtain the data.

Available associations and association norms:


Annamaria Guida (2007)
The Representation of Verb Meaning within Lexical Semantic Memory: Evidence from Word Associations
Master's Thesis. Universita degli studi di Pisa.

Alissa Melinger, Sabine Schulte im Walde, Andrea Weber (2006)
Characterizing Response Types and Revealing Noun Ambiguity in German Association Norms
In: Proceedings of the EACL Workshop Making Sense of Sense: Bringing Computational Linguistics and Psycholinguistics together. Trento, Italy.

Michael Roth, Sabine Schulte im Walde (2008)
Corpus Co-Occurrence, Dictionary and Wikipedia Entries as Resources for Semantic Relatedness Information
In: Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Marrakech, Morocco.

Sabine Schulte im Walde (2008)
Human Associations and the Choice of Features for Semantic Verb Classification
Research on Language and Computation 6(1):79-111.

Sabine Schulte im Walde, Susanne Borgwaldt (2015)
Association Norms for German Noun Compounds and their Constituents
Behavior Research Methods 47(4):1199-1221.

Sabine Schulte im Walde, Susanne Borgwaldt, Ronny Jauch (2012)
Association Norms of German Noun Compounds
In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Istanbul, Turkey.

Sabine Schulte im Walde, Alissa Melinger (2008)
An In-Depth Look into the Co-Occurrence Distribution of Semantic Associates
Italian Journal of Linguistics 20(1):89-128. Special Issue on From Context to Meaning: Distributional Models of the Lexicon in Linguistics and Cognitive Science.

Sabine Schulte im Walde, Alissa Melinger, Michael Roth, Andrea Weber (2008)
An Empirical Characterisation of Response Types in German Association Norms
Research on Language and Computation 6(2):205-238.

Sabine Schulte im Walde, Stefan Müller (2013)
Using Web Corpora for the Automatic Acquisition of Lexical-Semantic Knowledge
Journal for Language Technology and Computational Linguistics 28(2):85-105. Special Issue on Web Corpora for Computational Linguistics and Linguistic Research, edited by Roman Schneider, Angelika Storrer and Alexander Mehler.